## PCB Via CalculatorMarch 12, 2006

This Javascript web calculator calculates the resistance, voltage drop, and power loss of printed circuit board vias. Note that vias are made out of plated copper which typically has a resistivity of 1.7E-6 to 2.2E-6 Ohm-cm. The calculator has an input box for the resistivity which defaults to 1.9E-6 Ohm-cm.

May 22, 2006 - Added thermal resistance calculation.
January 19, 2007 - Minor Clarifications.
March 28, 2007 - Updated resistivity. See comment 12.
June 21, 2007 - Added estimated ampacity. See comment 17.

Inputs:

 Finished Hole Dia mil mm um Plating Thickness oz/ft^2 mil mm um Via Length mil mm um

Optional Inputs:

 Applied Current Amps Plating Resistivity Ohm-cm

Electrical Results:

 Resistance Ohms Voltage Drop Volts Power Loss Watts Estimated Ampacity Amps

Thermal Results:

 Thermal Resistance Deg. C/Watt

Notes:
Resistance = Resistivity*Length/Area
Area = pi*(Inner_dia + Plating_thk)*Plating_thk
Resistivity = 1.9E-6 Ohm-cm (plated copper)
(plated copper is much more resistive than pure copper)
Copper Thermal_Resistivity = 0.249 cm-K/W (at 300K)
Est_Ampacity [Amps] = k*(Temp_Rise [deg C])^b*(Area [mils^2])^c
For IPC-2221 external layers: k = 0.048, b = 0.44, c = 0.725

References:
[1] "Constructing Your Power Supply - Layout Considerations", by Robert Kollman
http://focus.ti.com/lit/ml/slup230/slup230.pdf
[2] "Current Carrying Capacity of Vias", by Doug Brooks and Dave Graves